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Survey on Disrupting vs. Developing Papers

Introduction

Thank you for agreeing to take part in this important survey, which attempts to measure the distinct contributions of papers in unfolding scientific advance by whether they disrupt or develop existing scientific ideas. We seek your thoughts and opinions for a research project, with the intent to serve science and technology in the future. Your identity will be anonymized and we will retain answers for the questions we ask linked to a unique but non-identifiable ID.

Disrupting and developing papers

A paper may contribute to the advances of science in two ways, either by solving existing scientific problems or by suggesting new ones. We name these two strategies developing and disrupting, respectively.

Developing papers represent extensions or improvements of previous theory, method or findings (note that many papers will extend some scientific elements, while keeping others the same). Disrupting papers represent punctuated advances beyond previous theory, methods or findings (note that almost no papers can successfully disrupt all scientific elements; if they disrupt some things, they likely develop and keep others the same). Impact measures like citation counts alone cannot capture these two distinct contributions.

The goal of this survey is to solicit your knowledge and insight to facilitate the development of better measures on the developing and disrupting of papers.

Developing and disrupting Examples

1. Bak, P., Tang, C., & Wiesenfeld, K. (1987). Self-organized criticality: An explanation of the 1/f noise. Physical review letters, 59(4), 381.

2. Davis, K. B., Mewes, M. O., Andrews, M. R., Van Druten, N. J., Durfee, D. S., Kurn, D. M., & Ketterle, W. (1995). Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms. Physical review letters, 75(22), 3969.


Paper 1 by Bak et al. discovered a new phenomenon called self-organized criticality, thus labelled as disrupting; Paper 2 by Davis et al. validated the predictions from a theory called Bose-Einstein condensation in experiments, thus labelled as developing. Note that disruptiveness may not correlated directly with the “importance” or “quality” of a paper. For example, Paper 2 earned the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001 for its author Wolfgang Ketterle, justifying the importance of this research, but it is developing rather than disrupting.

Open Questions for You

1. Your field is _____________________ (e.g., physics, biology, etc.)

2. Can you recommending 5-10 disrupting papers in your field, ranking by their disrupting level (the most disrupting one comes the first).

3. Can you recommending 5-10 disrupting papers in your field, ranking by their developing level (the most developing one comes the first).

Thanks again for your participant !

Contact: Lingfei Wu, Dept. of Sociology, The University of Chicago (Human Subjects Survey approved, IRB18-1248)

Email: ###

Mobile: ###-###-###

Survey Results vs. D-scores

We presented the survey results as follows. For each study nominated by the respondents, we search it by title, journal, and year from the Web of Science journal articles 1900-2014. For each of the matched papers, we retrieve its disruption score calculated as introduced in our paper. The row is colored in green if disruption score is consistent with human labelling, and red otherwise.

1. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Complex Networks

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 2694540 1963 1 6273 Lorenz, E. N. (1963). Deterministic nonperiodic flow. Journal of the atmospheric sciences, 20(2), 130-141. 0.86
Disrupting 3489890 1967 1 684 Mandelbrot, B. (1993). Mandelbrot, B. (1967). How long is the coast of Britain? Statistical self-similarity and fractional dimension. science, 156(3775), 636-638. 0.83
Disrupting 22399745 1998 2 7074 Watts, D. J., & Strogatz, S. H. (1998). Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’networks. nature, 393(6684), 440. 0.48
Developing 23638776 1999 2 7050 Barabási, A. L., & Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. science, 286(5439), 509-512. -0.060
Developing 36288091 2010 5 368 Buldyrev, S. V., Parshani, R., Paul, G., Stanley, H. E., & Havlin, S. (2010). Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks. Nature, 464(7291), 1025. -0.012
Developing 37934765 2011 3 270 Liu, Yang-Yu, Jean-Jacques Slotine, and Albert-László Barabási. "Controllability of complex networks." Nature 473.7346 (2011): 167. -0.005

2. Scholarly Discipline: Computer Science, Artificial Neural Networks

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 21810479 1997 2 180 Hochreiter, S., & Schmidhuber, J. (1997). Long short-term memory. Neural computation, 9(8), 1735-1780. 0.0218
Disrupting 22692779 1998 4 468 LeCun, Y., Bottou, L., Bengio, Y., & Haffner, P. (1998). Gradient-based learning applied to document recognition. Proceedings of the IEEE, 86(11), 2278-2324. 0.0246
Disrupting 27482616 2003 4 37 Bengio, Y., Ducharme, R., Vincent, P., & Jauvin, C. (2003). A neural probabilistic language model. Journal of machine learning research, 3(Feb), 1137-1155. 0.0196
Disrupting 30894395 2006 3 295 Hinton, G. E., Osindero, S., & Teh, Y. W. (2006). A fast learning algorithm for deep belief nets. Neural computation, 18(7), 1527-1554. 0.0478
Developing 43001743 2014 5 1 Srivastava, N., Hinton, G., Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., & Salakhutdinov, R. (2014). Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting. The Journal of Machine Learning Research, 15(1), 1929-1958. -0.0002


3. Scholarly Discipline: Medicine, Epidemiology

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 20509 1901 1 285 Planck, M. (1901). On the law of the energy distribution in the normal spectrum. Ann. Phys, 4(553), 90. 0.81
Disrupting 1524833 1953 2 4915 Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. (1953). Molecular structure of nucleic acids. Nature, 171(4356), 737-738. 0.88
Disrupting 3337846 1966 1 1739 Li, T. Y., & Yorke, J. A. (1975). Period three implies chaos. The American Mathematical Monthly, 82(10), 985-992. 0.08
Disrupting 22399745 1998 2 7074 Watts, D. J., & Strogatz, S. H. (1998). Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’networks. nature, 393(6684), 440. 0.48
Developing 28543726 2004 7 504 Smith, D. J., Lapedes, A. S., de Jong, J. C., Bestebroer, T. M., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Osterhaus, A. D., & Fouchier, R. A. (2004). Mapping the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza virus. science, 305(5682), 371-376. -0.009
Developing 42512344 2014 10 8 Bedford, T., Suchard, M. A., Lemey, P., Dudas, G., Gregory, V., Hay, A. J., ... & Rambaut, A. (2014). Integrating influenza antigenic dynamics with molecular evolution. Elife, 3, e01914. -0.0007
Developing 41325996 2013 12 9 Cowling, B. J., Ip, D. K., Fang, V. J., Suntarattiwong, P., Olsen, S. J., Levy, J., ... & Nishiura, H. (2013). Aerosol transmission is an important mode of influenza A virus spread. Nature communications, 4, 1935. -0.005
Developing 23638776 1999 2 7050 Barabási, A. L., & Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. science, 286(5439), 509-512. -0.060
Developing 981624 1945 2 6 Wang, M. C., & Uhlenbeck, G. E. (1945). On the theory of the Brownian motion II. Reviews of modern physics, 17(2-3), 323. -0.00013
Developing 31458546 2006 4 181 Koelle, K., Cobey, S., Grenfell, B., & Pascual, M. (2006). Epochal evolution shapes the phylodynamics of interpandemic influenza A (H3N2) in humans. Science, 314(5807), 1898-1903. -0.006

4. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Biophysics

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 1335824 1950 1 452 McClintock, B. (1950). The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 36(6), 344-355. 0.13
Disrupting 6577389 1975 2 1247 Kubo, R. (1966). The fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Reports on progress in physics, 29(1), 255. 0.0756
Disrupting 5668301 1973 1 3242 Anfinsen CB (1973). "Principles that govern the folding of protein chains". Science. 181 (4096): 223–230. 0.23
Disrupting 3337846 1966 1 1739 Li, T. Y., & Yorke, J. A. (1975). Period three implies chaos. The American Mathematical Monthly, 82(10), 985-992. 0.08
Disrupting 7366649 1977 1 277 Kimura, M. (1977). Preponderance of synonymous changes as evidence for the neutral theory of molecular evolution. Nature, 267(5608), 275. 0.04
Disrupting 12952730 1986 3 2894 Kardar, M., Parisi, G., & Zhang, Y. C. (1986). Dynamic scaling of growing interfaces. Physical Review Letters, 56(9), 889. 0.02
Disrupting 21307712 1997 1 1546 Jarzynski, C. (1997). Nonequilibrium equality for free energy differences. Physical Review Letters, 78(14), 2690. 0.07
Developing 4996042 1971 1 1143 Wilson, K. G. (1971). Renormalization group and critical phenomena. I. Renormalization group and the Kadanoff scaling picture. Physical review B, 4(9), 3174. -0.053
Developing 10423972 1982 2 2411 Rubin, G. M., & Spradling, A. C. (1982). Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors. Science, 218(4570), 348-353. 0.06
Developing 14028182 1987 2 997 Bryngelson, J. D., & Wolynes, P. G. (1987). Spin glasses and the statistical mechanics of protein folding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 84(21), 7524-7528. -0.0029
Developing 13767305 1987 3 818 Baroni, S., Giannozzi, P., & Testa, A. (1987). Green’s-function approach to linear response in solids. Physical Review Letters, 58(18), 1861. -0.0025
Developing 19540255 1995 2 64 Ott, E., Grebogi, C., & Yorke, J. A. (1990). Controlling chaos. Physical review letters, 64(11), 1196. -0.0071
Developing 23535744 1999 1 678 Crooks, G. E. (1999). Entropy production fluctuation theorem and the nonequilibrium work relation for free energy differences. Physical Review E, 60(3), 2721. -0.022
Developing 39691383 2012 13 225 Diaz Jr, L. A., Williams, R. T., Wu, J., Kinde, I., Hecht, J. R., Berlin, J., ... & Kinzler, K. W. (2012). The molecular evolution of acquired resistance to targeted EGFR blockade in colorectal cancers. Nature, 486(7404), 537. -0.0063


5. Scholarly Discipline: Chemistry, Chemistry of Materials

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 2715507 1964 2 21098 Hohenberg, P., & Kohn, W. (1964). Inhomogeneous electron gas. Physical review, 136(3B), B864. 0.87
Disrupting 3066775 1965 2 22189 Kohn, W., & Sham, L. J. (1965). Self-consistent equations including exchange and correlation effects. Physical review, 140(4A), A1133. -0.22
Disrupting 20807103 1996 3 35677 Perdew, J. P., Burke, K., & Ernzerhof, M. (1996). Generalized gradient approximation made simple. Physical review letters, 77(18), 3865. 0.17
Developing 16317537 1991 2 8275 Troullier, N., & Martins, J. L. (1991). Efficient pseudopotentials for plane-wave calculations. Physical review B, 43(3), 1993. -0.05
Developing 9595742 1981 2 10764 Perdew, J. P., & Zunger, A. (1981). Self-interaction correction to density-functional approximations for many-electron systems. Physical Review B, 23(10), 5048. -0.05
Developing 22749396 1998 3 2513 Stratmann, R. E., Scuseria, G. E., & Frisch, M. J. (1998). An efficient implementation of time-dependent density-functional theory for the calculation of excitation energies of large molecules. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 109(19), 8218-8224. -0.035
Developing 30109848 2005 10 4174 Phillips, J. C., Braun, R., Wang, W., Gumbart, J., Tajkhorshid, E., Villa, E., ... & Schulten, K. (2005). Scalable molecular dynamics with NAMD. Journal of computational chemistry, 26(16), 1781-1802. -0.047
Developing 16317537 1991 2 8275 Troullier, N., & Martins, J. L. (1991). Efficient pseudopotentials for plane-wave calculations. Physical review B, 43(3), 1993. -0.05

6. Scholarly Discipline: Biology, Biomedical engineering

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 1524833 1953 2 4915 Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. (1953). Molecular structure of nucleic acids. Nature, 171(4356), 737-738. 0.88
Disrupting 4553191 1970 1 425 Crick, F. (1970). Central dogma of molecular biology. Nature, 227(5258), 561. 0.11
Disrupting 6428493 1975 2 12237 Köhler, G., & Milstein, C. (1975). Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature, 256(5517), 495. 0.56
Disrupting 9242554 1980 2 2180 Nüsslein-Volhard, C., & Wieschaus, E. (1980). Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila. Nature, 287(5785), 795. 0.22
Disrupting 12589102 1985 7 6784 Saiki, R. K., Scharf, S., Faloona, F., Mullis, K. B., Horn, G. T., Erlich, H. A., & Arnheim, N. (1985). Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science, 230(4732), 1350-1354. 0.77
Disrupting 15202103 1989 3 1974 Finlay, C. A., Hinds, P. W., & Levine, A. J. (1989). The p53 proto-oncogene can act as a suppressor of transformation. Cell, 57(7), 1083-1093. -0.023
Disrupting 21344876 1997 2 134 Weber, J. L., & Myers, E. W. (1997). Human whole-genome shotgun sequencing. Genome research, 7(5), 401-409. 0.0007
Disrupting 24992293 2001 274 6166 Venter, J. C., Adams, M. D., Myers, E. W., Li, P. W., Mural, R. J., Sutton, G. G., ... & Gocayne, J. D. (2001). The sequence of the human genome. science, 291(5507), 1304-1351. 0.015
Developing 2059859 1958 1 68 White, R. G. (1958). Antibody production by single cells. Nature, 182(4646), 1383. -0.005
Developing 2157658 1959 2 485 Miller, S. L., & Urey, H. C. (1959). Organic compound synthesis on the primitive earth. Science, 130(3370), 245-251. -0.025
Developing 8030085 1978 2 83 Prendergast, F. G., & Mann, K. G. (1978). Chemical and physical properties of aequorin and the green fluorescent protein isolated from Aequorea forskalea. Biochemistry, 17(17), 3448-3453. -0.0002
Developing 29239492 2005 4 263 Mojica, F. J., García-Martínez, J., & Soria, E. (2005). Intervening sequences of regularly spaced prokaryotic repeats derive from foreign genetic elements. Journal of molecular evolution, 60(2), 174-182. -0.0027
Developing 39797745 2012 9 165 Karr, J. R., Sanghvi, J. C., Macklin, D. N., Gutschow, M. V., Jacobs, J. M., Bolival Jr, B., ... & Covert, M. W. (2012). A whole-cell computational model predicts phenotype from genotype. Cell, 150(2), 389-401. -0.0026

7. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Complex Systems

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 1139084 1948 1 7393 Shannon, C. E. (2001). A mathematical theory of communication. ACM SIGMOBILE mobile computing and communications review, 5(1), 3-55. 0.53
Disrupting 1382615 1951 1 1054 Nash, J. (1951). Non-cooperative games. Annals of mathematics, 286-295. 0.28
Disrupting 2694540 1963 1 6273 Lorenz, E. N. (1963). Deterministic nonperiodic flow. Journal of the atmospheric sciences, 20(2), 130-141. 0.86
Disrupting 3489890 1967 1 684 Mandelbrot, B. (1993). Mandelbrot, B. (1967). How long is the coast of Britain? Statistical self-similarity and fractional dimension. science, 156(3775), 636-638. 0.83
Disrupting 5288369 1972 1 65 Lovelock, J. E. (1983). Gaia as seen through the atmosphere. In Biomineralization and biological metal accumulation (pp. 15-25). Springer, Dordrecht. 0.092
Disrupting 10919798 1983 1 983 Wolfram, S. (1983). Statistical mechanics of cellular automata. Reviews of modern physics, 55(3), 601. 0.043
Developing 29551986 2005 1 404 Barabasi, A. L. (2005). The origin of bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics. Nature, 435(7039), 207. 0.036
Developing 18332946 1993 1 215 Dunbar, R. I. (1993). Coevolution of neocortical size, group size and language in humans. Behavioral and brain sciences, 16(4), 681-694. 0.054
Developing 21306675 1997 3 1764 West, G. B., Brown, J. H., & Enquist, B. J. (1997). A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology. Science, 276(5309), 122-126. 0.27
Developing 22399745 1998 2 7074 Watts, D. J., & Strogatz, S. H. (1998). Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’networks. nature, 393(6684), 440. 0.48
Developing 23638776 1999 2 7050 Barabási, A. L., & Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. science, 286(5439), 509-512. -0.060
Developing 36288091 2010 5 368 Buldyrev, S. V., Parshani, R., Paul, G., Stanley, H. E., & Havlin, S. (2010). Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks. Nature, 464(7291), 1025. -0.012

8. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Condense Matter

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 9117188 1980 12 2081 Klitzing, K. V., Dorda, G., & Pepper, M. (1980). New method for high-accuracy determination of the fine-structure constant based on quantized Hall resistance. Physical Review Letters, 45(6), 494. 0.65
Disrupting 9418664 1981 1 4352 Guth, A. H. (1981). Inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems. Physical Review D, 23(2), 347. 0.13
Disrupting 22542352 1998 121 2539 Fukuda, Y., Hayakawa, T., Ichihara, E., Inoue, K., Ishihara, K., Ishino, H., ... & Kobayashi, K. (1998). Evidence for oscillation of atmospheric neutrinos. Physical Review Letters, 81(8), 1562. 0.07
Disrupting 25397340 2001 3 1264 Newman, M. E., Strogatz, S. H., & Watts, D. J. (2001). Random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions and their applications. Physical review E, 64(2), 026118. -0.04
Disrupting 32278080 2007 2 958 Fu, L., & Kane, C. L. (2007). Topological insulators with inversion symmetry. Physical Review B, 76(4), 045302. -0.032
Developing 0527603 1982 3 1357 Aspect, A., Dalibard, J., & Roger, G. (1982). Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers. Physical review letters, 49(25), 1804. -0.09
Developing 12270830 1985 5 390 Chu, S., Hollberg, L., Bjorkholm, J. E., Cable, A., & Ashkin, A. (1985). Three-dimensional viscous confinement and cooling of atoms by resonance radiation pressure. Physical review letters, 55(1), 48. -0.02
Developing 13657056 1987 9 4705 Wu, M. K., Ashburn, J. R., Torng, C., Hor, P. H., Meng, R. L., Gao, L., ... & Chu, A. (1987). Superconductivity at 93 K in a new mixed-phase Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure. Physical review letters, 58(9), 908. -0.055


9. Scholarly Discipline: Biology, Neurology

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 1524833 1953 2 4915 Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. (1953). Molecular structure of nucleic acids. Nature, 171(4356), 737-738. 0.88
Disrupting 5008873 1971 2 1600 O'Keefe, J., & Dostrovsky, J. (1971). The hippocampus as a spatial map: Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain research. 0.18
Disrupting 16470959 1991 2 2200 Buck, L., & Axel, R. (1991). A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell, 65(1), 175-187. 0.023
Disrupting 20309084 1996 4 869 Campbell, K. H., McWhir, J., Ritchie, W. A., & Wilmut, I. (1996). Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line. Nature, 380(6569), 64. 0.114
Disrupting 21595245 1997 7 1585 Miyawaki, A., Llopis, J., Heim, R., McCaffery, J. M., Adams, J. A., Ikura, M., & Tsien, R. Y. (1997). Fluorescent indicators for Ca 2+ based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin. Nature, 388(6645), 882. 0.013
Disrupting 9196956 1980 2 306 Sigworth, F. J., & Neher, E. (1980). Single Na+ channel currents observed in cultured rat muscle cells. Nature, 287(5781), 447. -0.0105
Disrupting 29847769 2005 5 873 Boyden, E. S., Zhang, F., Bamberg, E., Nagel, G., & Deisseroth, K. (2005). Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity. Nature neuroscience, 8(9), 1263. -0.011
Disrupting 39432157 2012 7 133 Liu, X., Ramirez, S., Pang, P. T., Puryear, C. B., Govindarajan, A., Deisseroth, K., & Tonegawa, S. (2012). Optogenetic stimulation of a hippocampal engram activates fear memory recall. Nature, 484(7394), 381. -0.0093
Disrupting 40818999 2013 11 659 Cong, L., Ran, F. A., Cox, D., Lin, S., Barretto, R., Habib, N., ... & Zhang, F. (2013). Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems. Science, 1231143. -0.109
Developing 20471872 1996 2 391 O'Keefe, J., & Burgess, N. (1996). Geometric determinants of the place fields of hippocampal neurons. Nature, 381(6581), 425. -0.027
Developing 24945238 2001 3 378 Nakai, J., Ohkura, M., & Imoto, K. (2001). A high signal-to-noise Ca 2+ probe composed of a single green fluorescent protein. Nature biotechnology, 19(2), 137. -0.009
Developing 29811599 2005 5 685 Hafting, T., Fyhn, M., Molden, S., Moser, M. B., & Moser, E. I. (2005). Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex. Nature, 436(7052), 801. -0.059
Developing 32097845 2007 14 158 Wang, H., Peca, J., Matsuzaki, M., Matsuzaki, K., Noguchi, J., Qiu, L., ... & Kasai, H. (2007). High-speed mapping of synaptic connectivity using photostimulation in Channelrhodopsin-2 transgenic mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(19), 8143-8148. -0.020
Developing 32000539 2007 11 532 Zhang, F., Wang, L. P., Brauner, M., Liewald, J. F., Kay, K., Watzke, N., ... & Deisseroth, K. (2007). Multimodal fast optical interrogation of neural circuitry. Nature, 446(7136), 633. -0.055
Developing 41481716 2013 8 42 Ramirez, S., Liu, X., Lin, P. A., Suh, J., Pignatelli, M., Redondo, R. L., ... & Tonegawa, S. (2013). Creating a false memory in the hippocampus. Science, 341(6144), 387-391. -0.004
Developing 42460290 2014 20 11 Thestrup, T., Litzlbauer, J., Bartholomäus, I., Mues, M., Russo, L., Dana, H., ... & Becker, S. (2014). Optimized ratiometric calcium sensors for functional in vivo imaging of neurons and T lymphocytes. Nature methods, 11(2), 175. -0.0003

10. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Complex Systems

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 21306675 1997 3 1764 West, G. B., Brown, J. H., & Enquist, B. J. (1997). A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology. Science, 276(5309), 122-126. 0.27
Disrupting 22399745 1998 2 7074 Watts, D. J., & Strogatz, S. H. (1998). Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’networks. nature, 393(6684), 440. 0.48
Disrupting 23287454 1999 3 343 Banavar, J. R., Maritan, A., & Rinaldo, A. (1999). Size and form in efficient transportation networks. Nature, 399(6732), 130. -0.025
Disrupting 29526858 2005 2 218 Papadopoulos, F., Kitsak, M., Serrano, M. Á., Boguná, M., & Krioukov, D. (2012). Popularity versus similarity in growing networks. Nature, 489(7417), 537. -0.01
Disrupting 42137564 2013 2 14 Brockmann, D., & Helbing, D. (2013). The hidden geometry of complex, network-driven contagion phenomena. science, 342(6164), 1337-1342. -0.0009
Developing 23638776 1999 2 7050 Barabási, A. L., & Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. science, 286(5439), 509-512. -0.060
Developing 23485413 1999 3 479 West, G. B., Brown, J. H., & Enquist, B. J. (1999). A general model for the structure and allometry of plant vascular systems. Nature, 400(6745), 664. -0.03
Developing 27251477 2003 3 128 Garlaschelli, D., Caldarelli, G., & Pietronero, L. (2003). Universal scaling relations in food webs. Nature, 423(6936), 165. -0.008
Developing 29526858 2005 2 218 West, G. B., & Brown, J. H. (2005). The origin of allometric scaling laws in biology from genomes to ecosystems: towards a quantitative unifying theory of biological structure and organization. Journal of experimental biology, 208(9), 1575-1592. -0.01
Developing 32316137 2007 4 65 Hidalgo, C. A., Klinger, B., Barabási, A. L., & Hausmann, R. (2007). The product space conditions the development of nations. Science, 317(5837), 482-487. 0.005
Developing 32015156 2007 5 178 Bettencourt, L. M., Lobo, J., Helbing, D., Kühnert, C., & West, G. B. (2007). Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 104(17), 7301-7306. 0.009
Developing 41361385 2013 1 20 Bettencourt, L. M. (2013). The origins of scaling in cities. science, 340(6139), 1438-1441. -0.0015

11. Scholarly Discipline: Sociology, Computational Social Science

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 2694540 1963 1 6273 Lorenz, E. N. (1963). Deterministic nonperiodic flow. Journal of the atmospheric sciences, 20(2), 130-141. 0.86
Disrupting 10919798 1983 1 983 Wolfram, S. (1983). Statistical mechanics of cellular automata. Reviews of modern physics, 55(3), 601. 0.043
Disrupting 749514 1937 1 130 Turing, A. M. (1937). On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. Proceedings of the London mathematical society, 2(1), 230-265. 0.22
Developing 41864029 2013 3 26 Wang, D., Song, C., & Barabási, A. L. (2013). Quantifying long-term scientific impact. Science, 342(6154), 127-132. -0.0008
Developing 26287301 2002 2 1764 Girvan, M., & Newman, M. E. (2002). Community structure in social and biological networks. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 99(12), 7821-7826. -0.014
Developing 25796095 2002 2 5607 Albert, R., & Barabási, A. L. (2002). Statistical mechanics of complex networks. Reviews of modern physics, 74(1), 47. -0.102
Developing 27306864 2003 1 3972 Newman, M. E. (2003). The structure and function of complex networks. SIAM review, 45(2), 167-256. -0.082
Developing 28638916 2004 4 64 Crucitti, P., Latora, V., Marchiori, M., & Rapisarda, A. (2004). Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Physica A: Statistical mechanics and its applications, 340(1-3), 388-394. -0.0042
Developing 30476908 2006 5 2432 Boccaletti, S., Latora, V., Moreno, Y., Chavez, M., & Hwang, D. U. (2006). Complex networks: Structure and dynamics. Physics reports, 424(4-5), 175-308. -0.022


12. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Complex Systems

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 1625098 1954 2 1630 Yang, C. N., & Mills, R. L. (1954). Conservation of isotopic spin and isotopic gauge invariance. Physical review, 96(1), 191. 0.27
Disrupting 2279482 1961 2 222 Prigonine, I., & Resibois, P. (1961). On the kinetics of the approach to equilibrium. Physica, 27(7), 629-646. 0.0027
Disrupting 572178 1931 1 2997 Onsager, L. (1931). Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes. I. Physical review, 37(4), 405. 0.93
Developing 23638776 1999 2 7050 Barabási, A. L., & Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. science, 286(5439), 509-512. -0.060
Developing 31447795 2006 1 835 Nowak, M. A. (2006). Five rules for the evolution of cooperation. science, 314(5805), 1560-1563. -0.078
Developing 584825 1931 1 2294 Onsager, L. (1931). Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes. II. Physical review, 38(12), 2265. -0.19
Developing 19701716 1995 2 831 Mantegna, R. N., & Stanley, H. E. (1995). Scaling behavior in the dynamics of an economic index. Nature, 376(6535), 46. 0.022

13. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Science of Science

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 1139084 1948 1 7393 Shannon, C. E. (2001). A mathematical theory of communication. ACM SIGMOBILE mobile computing and communications review, 5(1), 3-55. 0.53
Disrupting 1885680 1957 1 3375 Jaynes, E. T. (1957). Information theory and statistical mechanics. Physical review, 106(4), 620. 0.13
Disrupting 3001360 1965 1 873 Price, D. J. D. S. (1965). Networks of scientific papers. Science, 510-515. 0.92
Disrupting 19701716 1995 2 831 Mantegna, R. N., & Stanley, H. E. (1995). Scaling behavior in the dynamics of an economic index. Nature, 376(6535), 46. 0.022
Disrupting 27259529 2003 3 1145 Blei, D. M., Ng, A. Y., & Jordan, M. I. (2003). Latent dirichlet allocation. Journal of machine Learning research, 3(Jan), 993-1022. 0.43
Developing 29774502 2005 3 125 Boyack, K. W., Klavans, R., & Börner, K. (2005). Mapping the backbone of science. Scientometrics, 64(3), 351-374. -0.01
Developing 23679687 1999 5 385 Gopikrishnan, P., Plerou, V., Amaral, L. A. N., Meyer, M., & Stanley, H. E. (1999). Scaling of the distribution of fluctuations of financial market indices. Physical Review E, 60(5), 5305. -0.050
Developing 35783349 2010 3 9 Blei, D. M., Griffiths, T. L., & Jordan, M. I. (2010). The nested chinese restaurant process and bayesian nonparametric inference of topic hierarchies. Journal of the ACM (JACM), 57(2), 7. -0.0002


14. Scholarly Discipline: Computer Science, Programming Languages

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 591648 1932 1 2014 Church, A. (1932). A set of postulates for the foundation of logic. Annals of mathematics, 346-366. 0.10
Disrupting 749514 1937 1 130 Turing, A. M. (1937). On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. Proceedings of the London mathematical society, 2(1), 230-265. 0.22
Disrupting 38416856 2011 5 16 Kliesch, M., Barthel, T., Gogolin, C., Kastoryano, M., & Eisert, J. (2011). Dissipative quantum church-turing theorem. Physical review letters, 107(12), 120501. -0.003
Disrupting 26677721 2002 2 13 Cervesato, I., & Pfenning, F. (2002). A linear logical framework. Information and Computation, 179(1), 19-75. -0.007
Disrupting 23322527 1999 1 92 Shor, P. W. (1999). Polynomial-time algorithms for prime factorization and discrete logarithms on a quantum computer. SIAM review, 41(2), 303-332. -0.002
Disrupting 25664849 2001 6 267 Benenson, Y., Paz-Elizur, T., Adar, R., Keinan, E., Livneh, Z., & Shapiro, E. (2001). Programmable and autonomous computing machine made of biomolecules. Nature, 414(6862), 430. -0.001


15. Scholarly Discipline: Urban Planning

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 1524833 1953 2 4915 Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. (1953). Molecular structure of nucleic acids. Nature, 171(4356), 737-738. 0.88
Disrupting 1625098 1954 2 1630 Yang, C. N., & Mills, R. L. (1954). Conservation of isotopic spin and isotopic gauge invariance. Physical review, 96(1), 191. 0.27
Disrupting 20085875 1 1996 4025 Tibshirani, R. (1996). Regression shrinkage and selection via the lasso. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 267-288. 0.32
Disrupting 10732067 2 1983 3079 Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70(1), 41-55. 0.43
Developing 32015156 2007 5 178 Bettencourt, L. M., Lobo, J., Helbing, D., Kühnert, C., & West, G. B. (2007). Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities. 0.009
Developing 29526858 2005 2 218 Papadopoulos, F., Kitsak, M., Serrano, M. Á., Boguná, M., & Krioukov, D. (2012). Popularity versus similarity in growing networks. Nature, 489(7417), 537. -0.01


16. Scholarly Discipline: Psychology

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 17387906 1 1992 176 Wynn, K. (1992). Addition and subtraction by human infants. Nature, 358(6389), 749. 0.36
Disrupting 20936061 3 1996 525 Saffran, J. R., Aslin, R. N., & Newport, E. L. (1996). Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science, 274(5294), 1926-1928. 0.13
Disrupting 33782802 3 2008 48 Kirby, S., Cornish, H., & Smith, K. (2008). Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: An experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. -0.013
Developing 31896785 3 2007 55 Kirby, S., Dowman, M., & Griffiths, T. L. (2007). Innateness and culture in the evolution of language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(12), 5241-5245. -0.0046
Developing 39796191 4 2012 0 Rabagliati, H., Senghas, A., Johnson, S., & Marcus, G. F. (2012). Infant rule learning: advantage language, or advantage speech?. PLoS One, 7(7), e40517. 0
Developing 24606073 1 2000 81 Feldman, J. (2000). Minimization of Boolean complexity in human concept learning. Nature, 407(6804), 630. 0.001

17. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Statistical Physics

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 10801517 1983 3 10695 Kirkpatrick, S., Gelatt, C. D., & Vecchi, M. P. (1983). Optimization by simulated annealing. science, 220(4598), 671-680. 0.20
Disrupting 21307712 1997 1 1546 Jarzynski, C. (1997). Nonequilibrium equality for free energy differences. Physical Review Letters, 78(14), 2690. 0.069
Disrupting 20508348 1996 2 1099 Hukushima, K., & Nemoto, K. (1996). Exchange Monte Carlo method and application to spin glass simulations. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 65(6), 1604-1608. 0.015
Disrupting 25055445 2001 2 1093 Wang, F., & Landau, D. P. (2001). Efficient, multiple-range random walk algorithm to calculate the density of states. Physical review letters, 86(10), 2050. -0.0063
Developing 28088238 2004 3 69 Montanari, A., Parisi, G., & Ricci-Tersenghi, F. (2004). Instability of one-step replica-symmetry-broken phase in satisfiability problems. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, 37(6), 2073. -0.031
Developing 32219605 2007 5 111 Krzakała, F., Montanari, A., Ricci-Tersenghi, F., Semerjian, G., & Zdeborová, L. (2007). Gibbs states and the set of solutions of random constraint satisfaction problems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(25), 10318-10323. -0.042
Developing 25043534 2001 2 340 Mézard, M., & Parisi, G. (2001). The Bethe lattice spin glass revisited. The European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, 20(2), 217-233. -0.014
Developing 40126657 2012 1 1 Panchenko, D. (2012). The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model: an overview. Journal of Statistical Physics, 149(2), 362-383. -0.0002
Developing 34883632 2009 3 44 Roudi, Y., Tyrcha, J., & Hertz, J. (2009). Ising model for neural data: model quality and approximate methods for extracting functional connectivity. Physical Review E, 79(5), 051915. -0.004
Developing 39882170 2012 1 11 Ricci-Tersenghi, F. (2012). The Bethe approximation for solving the inverse Ising problem: a comparison with other inference methods. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 2012(08), P08015. -0.007

18. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Fundamental Physics

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 6372956 1975 1 374 Davies, P. C. (1975). Scalar production in schwarzschild and rindler metrics. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, 8(4), 609. 0.028
Disrupting 5636301 1973 1 422 Fulling, S. A. (1973). Nonuniqueness of canonical field quantization in riemannian space-time. Physical Review D, 7(10), 2850. 0.019
Disrupting 7414875 1977 2 1345 Gibbons, G. W., & Hawking, S. W. (1977). Cosmological event horizons, thermodynamics, and particle creation. Physical Review D, 15(10), 2738. 0.0047
Disrupting 6567540 1975 1 204 Hawking, S. W. (1975). Particle creation by black holes. Communications in mathematical physics, 43(3), 199-220. -0.025
Disrupting 7038753 1976 1 1757 Unruh, W. G. (1976). Notes on black-hole evaporation. Physical Review D, 14(4), 870. -0.060
Developing 19760561 1995 1 546 Jacobson, T. (1995). Thermodynamics of spacetime: the Einstein equation of state. Physical Review Letters, 75(7), 1260. -0.025
Developing 31847410 2007 5 57 Padmanabhan, T., & Paranjape, A. (2007). Entropy of null surfaces and dynamics of spacetime. Physical Review D, 75(6), 064004. -0.005
Developing 35029520 2009 1 16 Padmanabhan, T. (2009). Dark energy and its implications for gravity. Advanced Science Letters, 2(2), 174-183. -0.0004
Developing 37786325 2011 1 87 Verlinde, E. (2011). On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton. Journal of High Energy Physics, 2011(4), 29. -0.004
Developing 26662196 2002 1 192 Padmanabhan, T. (2002). Classical and quantum thermodynamics of horizons in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 19(21), 5387. -0.019
Developing 36231696 2010 1 174 Thermodynamical Aspects of Gravity: New insights -0.007
Developing 31422254 2006 2 48 Holography of gravitational action functionals -0.007

19. Scholarly Discipline: Physics, Astronomy

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 1181874 1948 1 308 Hoyle, F. (1948). A new model for the expanding universe. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 108, 372. 0.42
Disrupting 929385 1943 1 5619 Chandrasekhar, S. (1943). Stochastic problems in physics and astronomy. Reviews of modern physics, 15(1), 1. 0.17
Disrupting 1907700 1957 4 1915 Burbidge, E. M., Burbidge, G. R., Fowler, W. A., & Hoyle, F. (1957). Synthesis of the elements in stars. Reviews of modern physics, 29(4), 547. 0.039
Disrupting 2684021 1963 2 1382 Feynman, R. P., & Vernon Jr, F. L. (2000). The theory of a general quantum system interacting with a linear dissipative system. Annals of physics, 281(1-2), 547-607. 0.062
Disrupting 22070604 1998 21 285 Garnavich, P. M., Kirshner, R. P., Challis, P., Tonry, J., Gilliland, R. L., Smith, R. C., ... & Hogan, C. J. (1998). Constraints on cosmological models from Hubble Space Telescope observations of high-z supernovae. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 493(2), L53. -0.003
Disrupting 8777958 1979 1 624 Wolfenstein, L. (1979). Neutrino oscillations and stellar collapse. Physical Review D, 20(10), 2634. -0.18
Disrupting 3911753 1933 1 189 Robertson, H. P. (1933). Relativistic cosmology. Reviews of modern Physics, 5(1), 62. 0.044
Disrupting 827323 1939 2 20 Gamow, G., & Teller, E. (1939). On the origin of great nebulae. Physical Review, 55(7), 654. 0.143
Developing 9718229 1981 1 884 Langacker, P. (1981). Grand unified theories and proton decay. Physics Reports, 72(4), 185-385. -0.009
Developing 27148927 2003 2 1790 Peebles, P. J. E., & Ratra, B. (2003). The cosmological constant and dark energy. Reviews of modern physics, 75(2), 559. -0.03
Developing 21701261 1997 2 298 quantum complexity theory -0.02

20. Scholarly Discipline: Math, Combinatorics

Nominated as ID Year N of Authors WoS Journal Citations APA D-score
Disrupting 12780294 1986 2 197 Harer, J., & Zagier, D. (1986). The Euler characteristic of the moduli space of curves. Inventiones mathematicae, 85(3), 457-485. 0.489
Disrupting 1951493 1957 1 159 Harish-Chandra. (1957). Differential operators on a semisimple Lie algebra. American Journal of Mathematics, 87-120. 0.159
Disrupting 8920192 1980 2 498 Itzykson, C., & Zuber, J. B. (1980). The planar approximation. II. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 21(3), 411-421. 0.042
Disrupting 22746522 1998 2 117 Loday, J. L., & Ronco, M. O. (1998). Hopf algebra of the planar binary trees. Advances in Mathematics, 139(2), 293-309. 0.025
Disrupting 27631131 2003 2 35 Angel, O., & Schramm, O. (2003). Uniform infinite planar triangulations. Communications in Mathematical Physics, 241(2-3), 191-213. 0.0017
Disrupting 28718725 2004 3 32 Bouttier, J., Di Francesco, P., & Guitter, E. (2004). Planar maps as labeled mobiles. the electronic journal of combinatorics, 11(1), 69. -0.021
Disrupting 25616193 2001 4 76 Ekedahl, T., Lando, S., Shapiro, M., & Vainshtein, A. (2001). Hurwitz numbers and intersections on moduli spaces of curves. Inventiones mathematicae, 146(2), 297-327. -0.050
Disrupting 31343472 2006 2 28 Marckert, J. F., & Mokkadem, A. (2006). Limit of normalized quadrangulations: the Brownian map. The Annals of Probability, 34(6), 2144-2202. -0.017
Disrupting 32187127 2007 3 29 Eynard, B., Orantin, N., & Marino, M. (2007). Holomorphic anomaly and matrix models. Journal of High Energy Physics, 2007(06), 058. -0.012
Developing 29776680 2005 2 14 Goulden, I. P., & Nica, A. (2005). A direct bijection for the Harer–Zagier formula. Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series A, 111(2), 224-238. -0.018
Developing 18277214 1993 1 15 Gao, Z. (1993). A pattern for the asymptotic number of rooted maps on surfaces. Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series A, 64(2), 246-264. -0.022
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